The objective of this course is to introduce the students with biosphere and its evolution to understand diversity of life. Upon completion of this course students will be able to identify plants and animals of different taxonomic categories.
Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life, chemical evolution, origin of metabolism. Systematics of life: Protobionts, Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, unicellularity, multicellularity. Adaptation of organisms on land. Geological time scale. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: overview of earlier theories, Lamarckism, Darwinism, modern concepts and origin of species. Nomenclature and classification Systems (Artificial, Natural and Phylogenetic): Classification of Prokaryotes, Protoctista, Fungi, Plants and Animals.
Study of representatives of Kingdom Prokaryotae, Kingdom Protoctista and Kingdom Fungi with preserved specimens, prepared slides and fresh specimens. Study of salient features of Kingdom Plantae (Bryophytes, Tracheophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms) with examples. Study of salient features of Kingdom Animalia (Invertebrates and Chordates) with preserved and fresh specimens. Morphological characters of root, leaf, flower and fruit types. Collection and identification of local plants and animals.
1. Campbell Biology. Reece, J.B., Urry, L.A., Cain, M.L. and Wasserman, S.A., 9th Ed., Pearson/ Benjamin Cummings Publishers, USA. 2010.
2. Biology. Campbell, N. A. 8thEd. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. New York. USA, 2008.
3. Advanced Level Practical Work for Biology (Advanced Level Practical Work Series). Morgan, S. Hodder & Stoughton. 2002.
- Teacher: Ishaq Rehmani