Objective and Learning Outcome


Plant nutrients availability, replenishment and retention as well as use and behavior of fertilizer in soil are discussed. The students should be able to diagnose nutrient deficiency and toxicity symptoms and requirement of fertilizers for optimum plant growth.


Course Contents


1.            Crop growth, factors affecting and growth expressions

2.            Essential plant nutrients: functions, deficiency and toxicity

3.            Movement of nutrients to roots, acquisition and uptake

4.            Nitrogen gains and losses in soil


5.            Nitrogen fertilizers and their fate in soil

6.            Phosphorus forms and P-fertilizers behavior in soil

7.            Potassium forms, amount and exchange equilibrium in soil

8.            Calcium, magnesium and sulfur forms and amount in soil

9.            Crop responses; factor affecting and residual effects


10.        Integrated plant nutrient management

11.        Nutrients behavior in submerged soil

12.        Nutrient role in human and plant health

13.        Micro Nutrients role and deficiency symptoms




1.            Fertilizers identification and composition


2.            Fertilizer requirement calculation


3.            Fertilizer analyses (urea, CAN, DAP and SOP)

4.            Determination of available P and K in soil


5.            Plant analysis for N, P and K sufficiency and uptake


6.            Field visits for identification of nutrients deficiency and toxicity symptoms


7.            Visit to fertilizer factories, soil fertility institutes and demonstration trials





Recommended Books:


1.            Ahmad, N. and M. Rashid. 2003. Fertilizer and Their Use in Pakistan: An Extension Guide. Planning Commission, National Fertilizer Development Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan.


2.            Elsworth, L. and W.O. Relay (eds.). 2009. Fertilizers: Properties, Applications and Effects. Nova Science. Publ. Inc., NY, USA.


3.            Havlin, J.L., S.L.Tisdale, W.L. Nelson and J.D. Beaton. 2013. Soil Fertility and Fertilizers: An Introduction to Nutrient Management. 8th Ed. Pearson Education, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA.


4.            Mengel, K. and E.A. Kirkby. 2001. Principles of Plant Nutrition. 5th Ed. International Potash Inst., Bern, Switzerland.


5.            Russell, E.J. 2011. The Fertility of the Soil. 1st Ed. Cambridge Univ. Press, UK.