Objective and Learning Outcome


Extent of salt-affected soils, sources and type of salinity, water quality and management are discussed. The students will be able to diagnose type of salinity, apply suitable reclamation techniques and recommend sustainable management for crop production.


Course contents


1.            Salt-affected soils, classification, properties and extent

2.            Salination and sodication: Gapon and pHc equations

3.            Systems of characterization of salt-affected soils

4.            Chemistry of soil solution


5.            Root zone salinity

6.            Reclamation and management of salt-affected soils

7.            Irrigation water: Criteria and classification

8.            Groundwater: Characteristics and resources

9.            Salinity build up and prediction

10.        Waterlogged soils: Causes, impact and management


11.        Bio-saline Agriculture




1.            Field visits and sampling of salt-affected soils and irrigation water

2.            Saturated soil extract analysis, SAR calculation and ESP prediction

3.            Irrigation analysis, classification and interpretation


4.            Gypsum requirement of soil and brackish irrigation water

5.            Demonstration of Ex-situ soil reclamation techniques


Recommended Books:


1.                                                                                                    Bohn, H.L., B.L. McNeal and G.A.O. Connor. 2001. Soil Chemistry. 3rd 16Ed. John Wiley & Sons Inc., NY, USA.


2.            Essington, M.E. 2004. Soil and Water Chemistry: An Integrated Approach. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.


3.            Ghafoor, A., M. Qadir and G. Murtaza. 2004. Salt-Affected Soils: Principles of Management. Allied Book Center, Lahore, Pakistan.


4.            Handbook 60


5.            IWASRI manual


6.            Molden, D. (ed.). 2007. Water for Food, Water for Life: A Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture. Earthscan Colombo, IWMI, Sri Lanka.


7.            Tanji, K.K. and N.G. Kielm. 2002. Agricultural Drainage Water Management in Arid and Semi-arid Areas. FAO Agri. Drainage Paper 61. Rome, Italy.