(Part 1 Deviance)

·         Introduction

o   Definitions

o   Nature

o   Relative phenomenon

o   Difference between deviance and crime

·         Deviance and Types of Deviance

o   Social stigma

o   Mental illness

·         Social Factors and Deviance

·         Function of Deviance

·         Theories of Deviance

o   Biological explanation

o   Psychological explanation

·         Sociological explanation

o   Functionalist theories of deviance

o   Conflict theories of deviance

o   Symbolic integration theories of deviance

·         Controlling Deviance

·         Deviance in global perspective

o   Debating social policy

o   Some Important Case Studies.                                                                                                                                                

(Part 1 Criminology)

·         Introduction

o   Criminology and its scope

o   Criminology and its law

·         Related Concepts

o   Deviancy

o   Sin

o   Vice

o   Crime as a social and cultural phenomenon

o   Crime and social organization

o   Crime as a social problem

o   Crime and social structure

·         Theories and Approaches to Criminal Behavior

o   Biological and environmental factors

o   Psychological and psychiatric determinants

o   Sociological and economic approaches

o   Islamic point of view

·         Crime and Criminals

o   The occasional criminals

o   The habitual criminals

o   The professional criminals

o   The white-collar crimes

o   The organized crimes

o   Corporate crimes

o   Custom based deviance and crimes

·         Juvenile delinquency

o   Juvenile delinquency and crime

o   Delinquency prevention at juvenile level

o   Juvenile reformatories

o   Probation

o   Other preventive measures/ programs with reference to Pakistan

·         Crime Statistics

o   Sources, difficulties and need

o   National crime statistics and its sociological interpretation

o   International crime statistics and its sociological interpretation

o   Problems of reliability and validity

·         Detection of Crimes

o   Agencies of detection formal-informal

o   Techniques of detection

o   Problems of detection

·         Trail and conviction of offenders

o   Agencies: formal/informal criminal court

o   Types, problems and procedures

·         Punitive and reformative treatments of criminals

o   Corporal punishments

o   Capital punishment

o   Imprisonment

o   Prison and related problems

o   Probation

o   Parole

o   Rehabilitation of criminals

o   Specific study of Islamic laws with special emphases on Hadood, Qisas and Tazir

·         Prevention of Crime

o   Long term measures

o   Short term measures


1.            Aulak, An Mafid. Criminal Justice, Martin, Ramdy, 1991. Criminological Thnought- Pioneers, Past and Present. Macmillan and Co.

2.            Jupp. Victor (1989), Methods of Criminological Research, London, Macmillan and Co.

3.            Hagon, John Modern (1987), Criminology , New York, McGraw Hill.

4.            Resen Berg M.M.: An Introduction to Sociology, Methven, New York, 1983.

5.            Curra, John, Understanding Social Deviance: From the Near Side to the outer limits, NewYork, Harper Collins, 1994.



Introduction and Early Social Thought

  • Historical Development of Social Philosophy
  • Folk Thinking
  • Greek
  • Egyptian
  • Babylonian
  • Chinese

            Muslim Social Thought

  • Imam Ghazali
      • Causes of group life
      • Social justice
      • Educational reforms
  • Ibn-E-Khuldun
      • Philosophy of history
      • Science of culture
      • Ethnocentrism
      • Rise & fall of nations
      • Causes of social life
  • Shah Waliullah
      • Evolution of society
      • Causes of social life
      • Societal disease
      • Concept of perfect society

Historical Background of Classical Sociological Theory

  • Social Forces in the Development of Sociological Theory
  • Intellectual Forces and the Rise of Sociological Theory
  • Church-State Controversy
  • The Development of French Sociology
  • The Development of German Sociology
  • The Origins of British Sociology

Classical Sociological Theorists

  • August Comte
      • Aims and assumption
      • Methodology and typology
      • Evolutionary scheme of society
  • Emile Durkheim
      • Social facts
      • Division of labor 
      • Dynamic density
      • Law
      • Anomie
      • Collective conscience
      • Collective representation
      • Suicide and social currents
      • Religion; Sacred and profane
      • Totemism
      • Deviance is functional
      • Typology of society
      • Issues of Durkheimian analysis
  • Max Weber
      • Verstehen
      • Social action and its types
      • Ideal Types and Sociological Theorizing
      • Structures of authority
      • Protestant Ethics and Rise of Capitalism
      • Rationalization
  • Karl Marx
      • Introduction to Hegel’s Philosophy
      • The Dialectic
      • Dialectic Method
      • Fact and Value
      • Reciprocal Relations
      • Past, Present, Future
      • No Inevitabilities
      • Actors and Structures
      • Human Nature
      • Labor
      • Alienation
      • The Structures of Capitalist Society
      • Commodities
      • Fetishism of Commodities
      • Capital, Capitalists, and Proletariat
      • Exploitation
      • Class Conflict
      • Capitalism as Good Thing
      • Materialistic Conception of History
      • Ideology
      • Communism
      • Issues and controversies in Marxism
  • C. Wright Mills
      • Basic Assumptions
      • Rationalization
      • White Collar
      • Power and Authority
      • The Power Elite
      • The Causes of World War III
      • Social Problems
      • The Sociological Imagination
  • George Simmel
      • Primary Concerns
      • Dialectical Thinking
      • Individual Consciousness
      • Social Interaction
      • Interaction: Forms and Types
      • Social Structures
      • Objective Culture
      • The Philosophy of Money


1.            Farganis, J. (1993). Readings in Social Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

2.            Jones, P. (2003). Introducing Social Theory, Cambridge: Polity Press

3.            Kinloch, C. G. (1977). Sociological Theory; Its Development and Major Paradigms. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company

4.            Ritzer, G. (2004). Sociological Theory, New York: McGraw-Hill, INC.

Soc-301       CRIMINOLOGY



This course familiarizes the students with the basic concepts, theories and methodologies used in the field of criminology. The role of pertinent agencies in crime control will be learnt. The course will focus on understanding crime, criminality, and social remedies.


1.     Introduction

a.    Social construction of crimes and Criminals

b.    Types of Criminal and Crimes

c.    Law and Crime

d.    Deviancy

e.    Sin

f.     Vice

g.   Crime and social organization

h.    Crime as a social problem

i.     Criminology & its scope

j.     Criminology & Criminal Law


2.     Approaches to Criminal Behavior

a.    Biological and environmental factors

b.    Psychological and psychiatric determinants

c.    Sociological and economic approaches

d.    Islamic point of view


3.     Crime and Criminals

a.    The occasional criminals

b.    The habitual criminals

c.    The professional criminals

d.    The white-collar crimes

e.    The organized crimes

f.     Corporate crimes

g.   Custom based deviance and crimes


4.     Detection of Crimes

a.    Agencies of detection formal-informal

b.    Techniques of detection

c.    Problems of detection


5.     Reformative Treatments of Criminals

a.    Corporal punishments

b.    Capital punishment

c.    Imprisonment

d.    Prison and related problems

e.    Probation, parole and Rehabilitation


6.     Explanation of criminal behavior

a.    Rational choice theory/Exchange Theory

b.    Choice & Trait Theories

c.    Social Reaction Theories

d.    Social Process theories

e.    Social Structural Theories


7.     Trial & Conviction of Offenders

a.    Agencies: Formal & Informal

b.    Criminal courts: Procedures & Problems


8.     Prevention of crimes

a.    Long term measures

b.    Short term measures


9.     Punitive & Reformative Treatment of Criminals

a.    Corporal Punishment

b.    Imprisonment

c.    Probation

d.    Parole

e.    Rehabilitation of criminals

f.     Prison & related problems


Suggested Books:-


1.        (Eighth Edition) W.W.W Wads Worth com;

2.        Aulak, An Mafid. Criminal Justice, Martin, Ramdy, 1991. Criminological Thnought- Pioneers, Past and Present. Macmillan and Co.

3.        Cavan, Ruth Shonle (1962). Criminology, New York: Thomas Y. Growel Co.

4.        Curra, John, Understanding Social Deviance: From the Near Side to the outer limits, NewYork, Harper Collins, 1994.

5.        Cyndi Banks (2004) Criminal Justice Ethics Theory & Practice

6.        Farrington, David P. (1986). Understanding and Controlling Crime, New York: Springer-Verlag.

7.        Fox, Vernon (1985). Introduction to Criminology, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

8.        Hagon, John Modern (1987), Criminology , New York, McGraw Hill.

9.        Hagon, John Modern (1987). Criminology, New York: McGraw Hill.

10.     Heidensohn, Frances (1989). Crime and Society, London: Mcmillan and Co.

11.     Jupp, Victor, (1989). Methods of Criminological Research, London: Unwin, Hyman.

12.     Jupp. Victor (1989), Methods of Criminological Research, London, Macmillan and Co.

13.     Larry J Siegel (2004) Criminology Theories, Patterns & typologies

14.     Prafullah Padhy (2006) organized Crime Isha Books Delhi;

15.     Rachel Boba (2005) Crime Analysis & Crime maping  sage Publication Lahore ;

16.     Reckless, Walter C. (1961). Crime Problem, New York: Appleton-

17.     Resen Berg M.M.: An Introduction to Sociology, Methven, New York, 1983.

18.     Sage Publication;  

19.     Sanford H Kadish (1983) Encyclopeadia of Crime & Justice, The Free Press A Division of Macmillan.

20.     Peter Joyce. 2018. Criminology Criminal Justice: A Study Guide. Routledge. ISBN-13: 978-1843923367

Soc-209       Classical Sociological Theories



The course provides a review of classical sociological theorists to contemporary sociological thinking.  It focuses on the content and utility of classical theories in terms of understanding social world.  While the course provides a general history of sociological theory, the focus remains on examining how classical theories have provided the basis for a better understanding of the character and dynamics of societies around the world. The contents of the course also help understand the nature of contemporary sociological theories.


Course Outline


1.  Background

                    a.        Social Forces

                    b.        Intellectual Forces

                    c.        French Revolution

                    d.        Enlightenment


2.  Development of Sociological Theory

a.        Theory and Knowledge

b.        Process of Theorizing

c.        Types of Sociological Theories

d.        Inductive and Deductive

e.        Process of theorizing

f.         Fact, Propositions, and Laws

g.       Sociological Theory between 1600 -1800 AD


3.  August Comte

a.        Positivism

b.        The law of Human Progress

c.        Hierarchy of the Sciences

d.        Social Static & Dynamic

2.    Emile Durkheim

a.        Rules of Sociological methods

b.        Division of Labour

c.        Social Solidarity

d.        Theory of Religion

e.        Theory of Suicide

3.    W. G. Sumner

a.        Folkways and Mores

b.        Ingroup and outgroup

c.        Basic motives

4.    Karl Marx

a.        Communist Manifesto

b.        Socialism

c.        Stages of Social Evolution

5.    Herbert Spencer

a.        The law of Social Evolution

b.        Concept of Society

c.        Laissez-faire

6.    Max Weber

a.        Sociology of Religion

b.        Bureaucracy

c.        Protestant Ethic and the Sprit of Capitalism


Recommended Books:

1.        Farganis, James (2000). “Readings in Social Theory: The Classic Tradition to Post-Modernism (3rd Ed.)”. Boston: McGraw Hill.

2.        Kinloch, Graham C. (1977). “Sociological Theory: Its Development and Major Paradigms” New York:   McGraw Hill.

3.        Ritzer, George (2002). Sociological Theory (10th edition). New York: McGraw Hill.

4.        Blalock, Hubert M. (1969) Theory Construction from Verbal to Mathematical Formulation (Ed). N.J.; Prentice Hall Inc.

5.        Bronner, Stephen Erick (latest ed.) Critical Theory and Society-A Reader, London; Routledge and Kegan paul.

6.        Cooley, C.H. (1962). Social Organization, New York: Scrichnes Books.

7.        John, J. Macionis. 2004. Sociology, 10th edition. Hardcover

8.        Ross, H. Laurence (1963). Perspectives on the Social Order, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.

9.        Imasheff, N. and G.A. Theoderson, (1976) Sociological Theory: Its Nature and Growth, New York: Random House.

10.     Calhon, Craig. Ed. 2007. Contemporary Sociological Theory. 2nd ed. Malden, USA: Blackwell Publishing.

11.     Wallace, Ruth A. & Alison Wold. 1991. Contemporary Sociological Theory. Continuing the Classical Tradition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall

12.     Waters. Malcolm. 1994. Modern Sociological Theory. London: Sage Publications

13.     Appelrouth Scott. 2007. Sociological Theory in the Contemporary Era: Text and Readings. London: Pine Forge Press.

14.     Craig Calhoun. 2012. Classical Sociological Theory. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN-13: 9780470655672

15.      Kenneth Allan. 2016. Explorations in Classical Sociological Theory: Seeing the Social World Sage Publications, Inc. ISBN-13: 9781483356693

Edward Royce.  2015. Classical Social Theory and Modern Society: owman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN-13: 978-1442243231