Introduction to beneficial microorganisms; role of microorganisms in bioremediation and biodegradation of agricultural and industrial by- products/wastes; use of microorganisms (bacteria, cynobacteria, nematodes and fungi inclusive of mycorrhizae) in bio-geochemical cycling and biocontrol of plant diseases; cultivation of edible fungi and yeasts; classification of soils based on their microbiological properties; principles and strategies for controlling the soil microflora for optimum crop production and protection; application of beneficial microorganisms; functions of microorganisms: putrefaction, fermentation, and synthesis; Introduction to use of cellulose decomposing fungi in paper and textile industry; use of fungi such as Penicillium and Aspergillus species in food processing including cheese ripening, pickle production etc; organisms as experimental tools and supplements of human food and animal feed (single cell protein, fodder yeast etc.); bacteriophages.